Astronomy- They knew how the tides are linked to the phases of the moon, while Italian scientist Galileo Galilei was still proclaiming, incorrectly, that the moon had nothing to do with tides. Others had figured out how eclipses work.Read more...
Math- In some cases, Aboriginal people had sophisticated number systems.
Navigation- How could they traverse this great continent without compasses, but using stars and oral maps?
Landcare- Aboriginal people managed country carefully through controlled burning to maximise productivity. They possessed ethno-botanical knowledge linked to specific places and environments. This resulted in fantastically fertile soils.
Chemistry. Aboriginal people had an intimate knowledge of bush medicine, and how to treat poisonous plants to make them usable for food or medicine.
Warfare. They organised fierce resistance to the British invaders, and sometimes won significant military victories such as the raids by Aboriginal warrior Pemulwuy or Jandamarra.”